The population of Surigaonon is mostly Austronesian stock, with some people of Chinese, Japanese and Arab heritage. European and American influences are also evident in the culture. With a population of almost 450,000 the lines between the different groups cannot be accurately distinguished.
Some 95 percent of the people speak Surigaonon as a major dialect. Influences of the Cebuano and Boholano languages with a Tausug accent can be traced. A few speak Waray and Tagalog. A majority are able to speak English.
The dominant religion is Roman Catholic. Other religions include Aglipayan and Protestant.